The T3SS imposes a significant cost on the bacterium, and strains which have lost the plasmid and/or genes encoding the T3SS grow faster than wild type strains in the laboratory, and fail to bind the indicator dye Congo Red (CR). Our aim was to define the molecular events in Shigella flexneri that cause loss of Type III secretion (T3S), and to examine whether TA systems exert positional effects on pINV. During growth at 37C, we found that deletions of regions of the plasmid including the PAI lead to the emergence of CR negative colonies; deletions occur through intra molecula r recombination events between insertion sequences (ISs) flanking the PAI.
In contrast, we found a much lower diversity in PNG of 185 DBLa types, with an average of approximately 7% overlap among repertoires. While we identify marked geographic structuring, nearly 40% of types identified in PNG were also found in samples from different countries showing a cosmopolitan distribution for much of the diversity. We also present evidence to suggest that recombination plays a key role in maintaining the unprecedented levels of polymorphism found in these immune evasion genes.
It is a brutal truth of the transportation business that change is often presaged with blood. As I detail in my book, the railroad industry, in particular, has a number of features based on past disasters that are taken for granted today: lighted signals, crossbars, airbrakes, control towers, even the timetables themselves that came about as a way to avoid head on collisions. Every time an American passenger steps onto a train, they place their faith into the hands of an engineer they will never see..
Moreover, long persistence of high or low economic activity can be explained by this model as well.The third chapter examines the effect of firms’ funding liquidity on macroeconomic dynamics and the role of liquidity markets. Here, we regard liquidity as firms’ accumulated net worth and introduce heterogeneity between firms with regard to their productivities and accumulation of their net worth. From our analysis, we show that under existence of externality between probabilities of liquidity shocks 1) the economy without liquidity markets is highly volatile.
As for the camera, the Micromax Bharat 2 bears a 2 megapixel rear camera with LED flash, and a 0.3 megapixel front camera for video chats and selfies. The smartphone packs a 1300mAh battery that is claimed to last up to 10 hours of standby time and 4 hours of talk time. Connectivity options include 3.5mm audio jack, FM radio, 4G VoLTE, Wi Fi 802.11 b/g/n, Bluetooth 4.0, and GPS.