The records of patients successfully treated in the Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, UK, were stored in a case base and were exploited using case based reasoning for future decision making. After each successful run of the system, a group based Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm automatically searches for an optimal/near optimal combination of feature weights to be used in the future retrieval process of CBR.A number of research issues associated with the prostate cancer dose planning problem and the use of CBR are addressed including: (a) trade off between the benefit of delivering a higher dose of radiation to cancer cells and the risk to damage surrounding organs, (b) deciding when and how much to violate the limitations of dose limits imposed to surrounding organs, (c) fusion of knowledge and experience gained over time in treating patients similar to the new one, (d) incorporation of the 5 years Progression Free Probability and success rate in the decision making process and (e) hybridisation of CBR with a novel group based simulated annealing algorithm to update knowledge/experience gained in treating patients over time.The efficiency of the proposed system was validated using real data sets collected from the Nottingham University Hospitals. Experiments based on a leave one out strategy demonstrated that for most of the patients, the dose plans generated by our approach are coherent with the dose plans prescribed by an experienced oncologist or even better.
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The phone call traditionally helps prepare for the two presidents to talk. But the misalignment between the two sides remains huge. Blinken said the US will stand up for human rights and “hold Beijing accountable for its efforts to threaten stability in the Indo Pacific” while Yang said the Taiwan issue is the most sensitive for China and that Washington should not interfere with its domestic affairs in Tibet, Xinjiang and Hong Kong.
In the developing endosperm of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), seed storage proteins are produced on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to protein bodies, specialised vacuoles for the storage of protein. The important gluten proteins of wheat are transported to the protein bodies they are stored in by two distinct routes. One route consists of vesicles that bud directly off the ER, while the other involves transport through the Golgi (Arcalis et al, 2004).